As part of what this website was created for - here you should find directions on how to construct a good reflection. (Any feedback would also be welcome - get in touch!)

Reflective Practice Models

"Reflection is a process of reviewing an experience of practice in order to describe, analyse,
evaluate and so inform learning about practice,”
Reid (1993).

There are a number of different reflective models you can use, depending on what reflection you are constructing. 

Davis Model 

This model has 6 key points 

  • Describe - Describe the situation

  • Reflect - Reflect on the experience, feelings, reactions or others

  • Identify - Identify the main issues, questions, concerns, skills used etc

  • Link Theory - From above, explain the relevance as to management 

  • Evidence it - Relate this to your theory, explain your justification here

  • Develop practice - Discuss and analyse the practice, any learning points or other questions

The example above is based on the Davis Model.

Discroll's 'What' Model



So what?

Now what?

  • What happened?

  • What did I do, see?

  • What did others do?

  • What is the purpose of reflecting?

  • What were my reactions?

  • Analyse the event

  • How did I feel at the time?

  • Are my feelings different now?

  • What did others feel?

  • What impacts did the things make I did/did not do?

  • What positives emerge?

  • What have I noticed about my practice?

"The more reflective you are, the more effective you are."

Hall and Simeral.

  • What do I propose to do now?

  • What are the implications for practice based on what I have now described and analysed for myself and other clinicians?

  • What help do I need to action or review my results of reflections?

  • How will I notice I am different in practice?

  • Where can I get more information from, if I am faced with the same situation again?

  • What is the main learning that I take from reflecting?

Gibbs' Model of Reflective Practice

Gibbs' has a straightforward approach to reflective practice with 4 simple steps.


What was the event, what happened?


How did you feel about it?


What could be done differently? (Any issues?)


What are you going to do?

John's Model

What was I trying to achieve?

“A window through which the practitioner can view and focus self within the context of his/ her
own lived experience in ways that enable him/her to confront, understand and work towards
resolving the contradictions within his/her practice between what is desirable and actual
Johns (2000)


Why did I respond the way I did?


How did I make the patient feel?

How did I know this?


How did I feel?

What factors influenced me?


What knowledge did, or should have informed me?

Has this changed me?

How did my actions match my beliefs? 


Can I support others and myself better?


What would the consequences be of alternative action to the patient, others and me?

How does this connect to previous experiences?

Could I handle this better in similar situations?